Legault and Inzlicht examined in separate studies autonomous motivation (trait autonomy; see also Ryan & Deci, 2000) and an autonomysupportive condition as they affected the magnitude of the error-related negativity response to performance errors in Go/No-Go and Stroop tasks requiring performance inhibition for accurate responding. Frontiers in Psychology, 1 (Article 210), doi: /fpsyg Marchant, D. C., Clough, P. J., & Crawshaw, M. (2007). Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, Jourden, F. J., Bandura, A., & Banfield, J. T. (1991). London. Self-talk training has been used to assist athletes in systematizing their internal dialogues prior to performance. Experimental settings after all are public places and as such presumably induce worries about one s performance or abilities being observed, measured, and compared with those of others leading to less-than-optimal learning. Positive stereotypes are pervasive and powerful. (2014). Chapter 16 1, Tutorial: Motivation (See also Tutorial on Executive Function/Self-Regulation Routines; Sense of Self; Noncompliance, Choking and Excelling at the Free Throw Line, Rehab and Beyond: Self- Determination to Continue, Evgenia Theodotou Metropolitan College, Athens, Greece. In the workplace today in which creative, non-routine jobs, Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (2010) 322 327 Copyright Ó 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved. Alex Thompson. 80 OPTIMAL Theory 80 Reeve, J., & Tseng, C. M. (2011). Thus, the general comment on a peer group s performance presumably made the novel and relatively challenging balance task appear less daunting and alleviated concerns older adults may have had, elevating self-efficacy relative to a control group. Psychological Science, 24, Hutchinson, J. C., Sherman, T., Martinovic, N., & Tenenbaum, G. (2008). Cortisol administration induces global down-regulation of the brain s reward circuitry. The ecological importance of an external focus can be illustrated by this example: What does the mountain goat about to jump across a chasm focus on? An external focus of attention seems to be a precondition for optimal motor performance. (p ). (2014) found that learning was enhanced with autonomysupportive instructions (e.g., you may want to cradle and deliver the ball in a windmill fashion so the ball travels over the shoulder and not to an angle or to the side. ) When temporally associated with skill practice, conditions that enhance expectancies for positive outcomes trigger dopaminergic responses and thereby benefit motor performance 2. Multiple reward signals in the brain. There are four types of motivation. Performance of a gymnastics skill benefits from an external focus of attention. External focus instructions reduce postural instability in individuals with Parkinson disease. Interestingly, placing the markers at a greater distance from the feet resulted in even higher frequencies in responding, as well as greater stability, than focusing on markers directly in front of the feet (McNevin, Shea, & Wulf, 2003). Hardy and colleagues found that skilled Gaelic 44, 45 OPTIMAL Theory 45 football players attempting free kicks with their dominant and non-dominant feet performed with greater kicking accuracy with a motivational self-talk statement (dominant limb) and equally well with motivational or instructional self-talk using their non-dominant foot (Hardy et al., 2015). (1993). ), Progress in Brain Research (p ), Vol. One advantage of adopting an external focus on the intended outcome may be that it directs concentration away from the self. (2003). Recently, Wulf and Lewthwaite (2016) published the Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) Theory. Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance. Although extolling all the benefits of exercise seems impressive, it is apparent that this approach by itself does not assure, Motivation Self Assessment Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose What is Motivation? Examining the relationships between self-efficacy, task-relevant attentional control, and task performance: Evidence from event-related brain potentials. study, self-efficacy was higher when participants learning a cricket bowling action were given instructions that provided them with a sense of autonomy (or neutral instructions), compared with controlling instructions (see Figure 4). The collective lines of behavioral research can provide perspectives on influences and mechanisms of human motor performance and learning beyond what can easily be accomplished in a neuroimaging scanner, heightening insights into the ecological validity of that work. Movement Effectiveness Balance. Overall, it is striking how easily performance and learning, across task domains, can be affected by performers expectancies. Onward and upward: Optimizing motor performance Effects of self-efficacy, satisfaction, and personal goals on swimming performance. The effects of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes: A meta-analysis of research findings. Mechanisms for enhanced expectancy effects. (2006). B., Jones, M. V., & Greenlees, I. Interestingly, learners who watched the edited videos that showed their best swimming strokes or trampoline skills demonstrated enhanced learning relative to other groups. Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. Conceptions of abilities may affect the extent to which people frame and interpret performance fluctuations as successes and failures, which may in turn influence motor performance and learning. Results of the study by An et al. True Colors Master Trainer June 2006 Executive Summary In an effort to ensure the ongoing quality of its programs and products, True Colors, Introducing Social Psychology Theories and Methods in Social Psychology 27 Feb 2012, Banu Cingöz Ulu What is social psychology? METHODS DOMAIN Standard Area IA: Introduction and Research Methods CONTENT STANDARD IA-1: Contemporary, Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations September, 2002 (Revised January, 2006) Icek Ajzen Brief Description of the Theory of Planned Behavior According to the theory, CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY? Occasional risks to expected rewards (i.e., challenge) can transiently dampen the extant levels of reward-related dopamine but amplify the impact of subsequent positive (but not negative) cues, strengthening the learning effect (Schultz, 2010, 2013). We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. Impacts of autonomy-supportive versus controlling instructional language on motor learning. Motivation as defined by Sage is the direction and intensity of one s effort. Psychological Bulletin, 134, Patterson, J. T., & Carter, M. (2010). Social-comparative feedback. Hafenbrack, A. C., Kinias, Z., & Barsade, S. G. (2013). more recently demonstrated reduced cognitive dual-task costs with an external relative to an internal focus. Sport Science Review, 19, Post, P. G., Fairbrother, J. T., & Barros, J. 86. New York: Plenum. We provide explanations for the performance and learning 2), S3-S9. Control over practice conditions. We suggest that an external relative to an internal focus plays a dual role by (a) directing attention to the task goal and (b) reducing a focus on the self. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2, Schücker, L., Hagemann, N., Strauss, B., & Völker, K. (2009). Opponency revisited: Competition and cooperation between dopamine and serotonin. did not differ from either one. Confidence in their ability to perform well, in combination with an instructed external focus, should facilitate successful movement outcomes. Increased jump height with an external focus due to enhanced lower extremity joint kinetics. The mind of expert motor performance is cool and focused. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 86 OPTIMAL Theory 86 Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2003). 58 OPTIMAL Theory 58 Arias, P., Robles-García, V., Espinosa, N., Corral-Bergantiños, Y., Mordillo-Mateos, L., Grieve, et al. Can ability conceptualizations alter the impact of social comparison in motor learning? 2 (p ). (2007). These findings highlight the importance of the self for human beings (James, 1890) and how easily it can be activated. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. Are we ready for a natural history of motor learning? the impact of solutions extends to, YALE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: TRAINING MISSION AND PROGRAM STRUCTURE RESEARCH TRAINING, Syllabus Development Guide: AP Psychology, School Psychology Program Goals, Objectives, & Competencies, Running head: MUSIC AND AUDITORY AFFECTIVE PRIMING ON COGNITION 1, FROM FREUD TO NIEMEYER. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. We speculate that some of the benefits of higher expectancies and an external attentional focus occur by facilitating efficient switching within and across brain networks (Predictions 9 and 10). Another study examined the effects of attentional focus instructions on the learning of movement form in novice golfers (An et al.). An external focus on the intended movement effect enhances all aspects of performance, independent of skill level, task, age, or (dis)ability. Feltz, D. L., Chow, D. M., & Hepler, T. J. Surfing the implicit wave. Neuron, 72, Shohamy, D., & Adcock, R. A. Updating dopamine reward signals. or in a placebo s effect (Piedimonte et al.). Success modulates consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task. Psychological Review, 106, Ashor, A. W. (2011). Instructional self-talk was a mixture of internal and external attentional foci. Self-referential processing appears to be a significant aspect of the brain s default mode of operation (e.g., Brewer, Worhunskya, Gray, Tang, Weber, & Kober, 2011; Buckner, Andrews- Hanna, & Schacter, 2008). The mpfc seems to be linked to a variety of self-related capacities that are maintained across space and time, reflecting the self (e.g., Gallagher, 2000). Interestingly, this was the case even though the actual performance of the 24-hour easy-objective group did not differ from that of the other groups in the first session. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41, Al-Abood, S. A., Bennett, S. J., Hernandez, F. M., Ashford, D., & Davids, K. (2002). Here, we address the latter aspect of the attentional literature -- what learners should focus on to optimize learning. Psychological Bulletin, 95, Sanli, E. A., Patterson, J. T., Bray, S. R., & Lee, T. D. (2013). Motivation Motivation can be a broad and inclusive term for factors influencing and encompassing the energization, direction, and intensity of behavior. (2012). In N. T. Feather (Ed. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 5, Friston, K. J. Compared to not receiving this information (control group), this simple statement resulted in increased selfefficacy and superior learning. An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities. This distance effect has been replicated with other tasks, including hitting golf balls (Bell & Hardy, 2009), dart throwing (McKay & Wulf, 2012), or the standing long jump (Porter, Anton, & Wu, 2012). NeuroImage, 115, Ong, N. T., Bowcock, A., & Hodges, N. J. Self-controlled concurrent feedback and the education of attention towards perceptual invariants. This, + Identifying opportunities to enhance students academic self-efficacy Professional development workshop June 2014 Dr Francine Garlin Academic Course Advisor (First Year) School of Business + We must place, Educational Psychology (EDP304) Comprehensive Course Review Research Methods 1. Unbeknownst to the participants, they were given feedback about either their most or least accurate trials in that block. In a study by Wulf, Raupach, and Pfeiffer (2005), participants practiced a basketball jump shot, and a video of a skilled model could either be requested by them or was provided to them at the respective times during practice. (2014). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMALtheory of motor learning. Human Factors, 51, Hughes, M. L., Geraci, L., & De Forrest, R. L. (2013). Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. Increases in jump-and-reach height through an external focus of attention. Frontiers in Psychology, 3 (Article 185). Cognition, 138, Kee, Y. H., Chatzisarantis, N. L., Kong, P. W., Chow, J. Y., & Chen, L. H. (2012). Psychological Science, 21, Dayan, E., & Cohen, L. G. (2011). In either case, enhanced performance or learning with an external relative to an internal focus has been found for various measures of movement effectiveness (e.g., accuracy in hitting a target, producing a certain amount of force, maintaining a balance position) and efficiency (e.g., reduced muscular activity, oxygen consumption, heart rate). 46, 47 OPTIMAL Theory 47 One advantage of adopting a focus on the intended outcome (e.g., landing location) may be that it directs concentration to the intended movement effect or task goal. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience. Extrinsic rewards. Similarly, the use of assistive devices (Chiviacowsky, Wulf, Lewthwaite, & Campos, 2012; Hartman, 2007; Wulf & Toole, 1999) or the ability to review solutions to problems before entering them (Patterson & Lee, 2010) may allow learners to maintain or increase their selfefficacy. Specialisation Psychology Semester 1 Semester 2 An Introduction to Doing Research Politics, Power and Governance I Philosophy of the Social Sciences Economics, Markets and Organisations I Rhetoric Law, Reconsidering Autotelic Play 1 Common Assumptions about Playing of Sports or Games Assumptions: Playing for the love of a sport is more valuable than playing to earn millions Playing to master a skill, Mount Mercy University 1 Psychology The psychology major presents a scientific approach to the study of individual behavior and experience. Conditions that fail to enhance learners expectancies and support their need for autonomy, and promote an internal focus of attention result in a vicious cycle of non-optimal learning (a), whereas conditions that enhance expectancies, provide autonomy support, and promote an external focus result in a virtuous cycle of enhanced motor learning (b). Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, Christina, R. W., & Alpenfels, E. (2014). Conceptions of ability can be influenced, often relatively easily, by task instructions or performance feedback. Self-controlled use of a perceived physical assistance device during a balancing task. (2015). (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 130, Doll, A., Hölzel, B. K., Boucard, C. C., Wohlschläger, A. M., & Sorg, C. (2015). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, Shmuelof, L., & Krakauer, J. W. (2011). Variability of practice and implicit motor learning. How far away is that? Probe reaction times generally decreased across practice, indicating that attentional demands decreased with experience. In response to the question about what they were thinking at the conclusion of the experiment, those in the internal focus group reported more selfevaluative content (36% 57%) than did participants in the external focus group (7% 21%). Potential consequences of autonomysupportive conditions include facilitation of performance (Karsh & Eitam, 2015; Legault & Inzlicht, 2013) as well as the opportunity to enhance perceptions of competence, self-efficacy, and sense of agency (Chambon & Haggard, 2012). Thus, it is not that the entire process must be implicit or explicit, but that timely goal-action coupling is facilitated. (1991). Effect of attentional focus strategies on peak force and performance in the standing long jump. The use of analogies may serve the same purpose by directing attention to the production of a given image (i.e., external focus), rather than body movements (e.g., Liao & Masters, 2001; Wulf, Lauterbach, & Toole, 1999). International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23, Chiviacowsky, S., & Drews, R. (2014). Self-controlled amount of practice benefits the learning of a motor skill. The effect of attentional focus on running economy. Thus, autonomy support directly affects performance and indirectly contributes to goal-action coupling by enhancing performance expectancies. Cortisol is considered a stress hormone, and increased levels are thought to reflect coping processes in response to the stress (Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004). Many aspects of motor skills can be and presumably are learned implicitly, including regularities in environmental stimuli and balance skills, and it has been shown that implicit learning can be more effective than explicit learning (e.g., Green & Flowers, 1991; Shea, Wulf, Whitacre, & Park, 2001; Wulf & Schmidt, 1997). These findings suggest that control conditions are not, in fact, neutral (or at least not affirmatively positive). Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through self-determination theory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, Rudman, L. A., Dohn, M. C., & Fairchild, K. (2007). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Using a cyclic leg extension-flexion task, Kal et al. Knowledge of results after relatively good trials enhances self-efficacy and motor learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, Marchant, D. C., Greig, M., Scott, C. (2008). All groups received a placebo. 76 OPTIMAL Theory 76 McKiernan, K. A., Kaufman, J. N., Kucera-Thompson, J., & Binder, J. R. (2003). Archives of Neurology, 66, van Elswijk, G., Kleine, B. U., Overeem, S. & Stegeman, D. F. (2007). Brief hypnotic intervention increases throwing accuracy. Mindfulness training has been related to enhanced balance performance resulting from greater automaticity in movement control (Kee et al., 2012). Accuracy in throwing balls (e.g., Al-Abood, Bennett, Hernandez, Ashford, & Davids, 2002; Chiviacowsky, Wulf, & Ávila, 2013; Zachry et al., 2005), darts (e.g., Lohse, Sherwood, & Healy, 2010; Marchant, Clough, & 36, 37 OPTIMAL Theory 37 Crawshaw, 2007), or Frisbees (Ong, Bowcock, & Hodges, 2010) has also been found to be improved with an external focus. A field within psychology that strives to understand the social dynamics, Executive Summary and Recommendations To download a free copy of the complete report, go to www.aauw.org/learn/research/whysofew.cfm. Accuracy. This finding is particularly interesting because, in a pilot study, Hartman did not find advantages to using the poles for the learning of this task suggesting that control over an assistive device can have a beneficial effect on learning, even if that device in and of itself is relatively ineffective. They gave new insight. Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Brain Connectivity, 2, Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Motor Control, Fox, M. D., Snyder, A. View 5 excerpts, cites methods and background, Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, View 17 excerpts, cites background, results and methods, View 8 excerpts, cites background and results, View 6 excerpts, cites results and background, Research quarterly for exercise and sport, Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience, Journal of experimental psychology. ), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory & practice (2 nd ed.) Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57, Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., Laroque de Medeiros, F., Kaefer, A., & Tani, G. (2008). Ultimately, this scenario may lead to a lack of interest in practicing or learning new skills, and perhaps activity avoidance. Indeed, the motor system s remarkable coordination capabilities seen with an external focus of attention are presumably a reflection of the effectiveness of implicit processes (see Wulf, Höß, & Prinz, 1998). The placebo effect on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity: Randomized single blind cross-over trial. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 14, Landers, M., Wulf, G., Wallmann, H., & Guadagnoli, M.A. In the latter case, high confidence in one s abilities can produce the effortlessness, automaticity, and task focus seen in effective high-level performance. (1995). Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81, Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Thus, because the frequency and timing of feedback delivery, etc.
optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning