It is something harsh to exclude the paschal supper out of the title of the See especially Becker’s Charicles.] John 13:1. https: See on John 5:20. John 19:36 points the same way, where Christ appears as the antitype of the paschal lamb. When John saw his Master next, after His Ascension, amidst the glories of the vision in his rocky Patmos, though His face was as the sun shineth in his strength, it was the old face. "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". So Westcott and Godet. 1. 407 (and Hermann’s note). https: The immortal words which Christ spoke in that upper chamber are His highest self-revelation in speech, even as the Cross to which they led up is His most perfect self-revelation in act. John 14:12 : "I go to my ather," John 15:18 : "If the world hate you, you know that it hated me before you," John 16:28 : "I leave the world and go to my Father," John 16:33 : "You shall have tribulation in the world," John 17:11 : "I am no more in the world, but they are in the world, and I come to thee." Our sorrows, dangers, necessities, are doors through which His love can come nigh. "Commentary on John 13:1". We may be sure of this, brethren, that that love ever increases its manifestations according to our deepening necessities. John 13:1-13 New International Version (NIV) Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet 13 It was just before the Passover Festival. . Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end. All rights reserved. They are the true members, of the family of God. BibliographyAlford, Henry. ‘Having loved His own which were in the world, He loved them unto the end.’, The margin of the R.V. There is no exhaustion in that great stream that pours out from His heart; no diminution in its flow. BibliographyRobertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 13:1". BibliographyEllicott, Charles John. 1, 7. Not only was the washing of the feet "usually" performed before the meal; it was so always, and without exception. when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father — On these beautiful euphemisms, see on Luke 9:31; see on Luke 9:51. having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end — The meaning is, that on the very edge of His last sufferings, when it might have been supposed that He would be absorbed in His own awful prospects, He was so far from forgetting “His own,” who were to be left struggling “in the world” after He had “departed out of it to the Father” (John 17:11), that in His care for them He seemed scarce to think of Himself save in connection with them: “Herein is love,” not only “enduring to the end,” but most affectingly manifested when, judging by a human standard, least to be expected. Copyright StatementThe Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. John 13:1-11.—A. They may therefore safely put their trust in him. On ἠγάπησεν, of actually manifested love, comp. And the act itself leads to the same conclusion. As this verb expresses a feeling existing habitually in the heart of Jesus, and not an historical act, some interpreters have denied this reference. "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". John 13:1-17 Love in Action; John 13:18-38 Et tu, Judas; John 14:1-6 Heaven… a Prepared place for Prepared People; John 14:7-18 Show Us the Father; John 14:19-31 Out of Sight, but not out of Mind; John 15:1-8 God Grapes; John 15:9-27 Jesus, the Human Gadfly; John 16:1-15 Jesus Departure, an Advantage not a Loss? LXX. Verse 1 A dramatic break in the outline of this Gospel appears here. Evidently it introduces only the account of foot-washing that follows. Then, still further, we have here this love suggested as being a love which has special tenderness towards its own. xiv., p. 170; J. Keble, Sermons for Sundays after Trinity, part ii., p. 451. 1876. John (13:1) states that Jesus “loved His own.” John 3:16 states that God loves the world, but here the emphasis is on Jesus’ love for His own, not for the world. This episode occurs in John at the place of the narration of the institution of the Eucharist in the synoptics. on chap. Biblical Commentary (Bible study) John 13:31-35 EXEGESIS: JOHN 13. Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. To this most sacred part of the New Testament my text is the introduction. BibliographyBenson, Joseph. 11. fol. John 13:1-20. Notwithstanding their errors and unbeliefs, his love persisted even to his ascension, and remains for evermore. I. John 13:1 Now before the feast of the passover This feast was instituted as a memorial of the deliverance of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and was an eminent type of Christ; and this passover was what Christ had greatly desired, it being his last, and when he was to express his great love to his people, mentioned here, by dying for them. See my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 26:19. Similar expressions are frequent in Homer. "Commentary on John 13:1". It may be a dramatization of Lk 22:27—“I am your servant.” It is presented as a “model” (“pattern”) of the crucifixion. https: The heinousness of Judas's sin in betraying Christ; he betrayed Christ Jesus a man, Christ Jesus his Master, Christ Jesus his Maker! See details on John 18:28. 1. How much sorrow was caused by this fatal contention in the circle of the disciples, is shown by the fact that Matthew and Mark pass over it altogether, while Luke and John touch it only by way of hint. The translation of the Vulgate, coenâ peractâ, and Luther's "after the supper," would not be justified even by the reading γενομένου. The invitation goes out to all: Come and take the water of life without cost (Rev. § 123.—JESUS WASHES THE FEET OF HIS DISCIPLES, John 13:1-20. 1 Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855. Used by John in three other places: John 5:24; John 7:3, and 1 John 3:14. end = furthest extent, referring not so much to a period of time, the end of His life, as to His readiness to descend to the humblest service in their behalf. That the First Three Evangelists expressly state this, admits of no reasonable doubt; and it is only because of certain expressions in the Fourth Gospel that some able critics think themselves bound to depart from that opinion. 1905. ; Calvary. What passed in this supper room, as recorded in this and the four following chapters, has been felt by the Church in every age to be stamped with a heavenly and divine impress, beyond all else even in this most divine Gospel, if one may so speak, and the glory of which no language can express. College Press, Joplin, MO. "As the first Passover had been the turning point in the redemption of the people of God, so the Cross would be the opening of a new era for believers." J. Oswald Dykes, Christian World Pulpit, vol. Knowing that his sufferings were at hand, the prospect of them did not make our gracious Master forget his disciples. BibliographyTrapp, John. BibliographyGill, John. 34 , 35 , shine out in brighter light when we consider that the Apostles had recently incurred the blame of neglect in that particular. iv., p. 119. 2 and 4 , that the supper, and consequently the feast, had begun before the feet-washing. Before the feast of the passover, means before they began the passover supper. Now before the feast of the passover, — The observation with which John ushers in this part of his history, may be considered as a kind of preface to the five subsequent chapters of his gospel. John 13:1-20. Here the first of these two points especially concerns us; and, without going into all the particulars which would be required for a fall discussion of the controversy, we would simply recall attention to the fact that the question is, Did Jesus eat the passover on the usual night, that appointed by the law, viz. But we can positively demonstrate that the feet-washing preceded the actual beginning of the supper and of the feast. https: 1.Before the feast of the passover. The designation τοὺς ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ is added in contrast to ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου which described His future condition, and it suggests the difficulties they are left to cope with and the duties they must do. Matthew 26:17. He also will be incapable of doubting that in John the last supper and the Lord's death must fall within the paschal feast. BibliographyLightfoot, John. John 13:1. πρὸ δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς τοῦ πάσχα, “before the feast of the Passover,” and therefore it was not the Paschal supper which is now described. https: The devil, being a spirit, has a quick access to our spirits, and can instill his suggestions into them. is of doubtful authority. The love of Jesus Christ to his people is unchanging. We must not understand "having hitherto loved His own;" for the hitherto, which would form the antithesis to εἰς τέλος, is not in the text; the "in the world" looks back to the "out of the world," and refers to the perilous position in which the disciples would be found after the impending departure of their Lord (comp. Questions for Discussion and Thinking Further follow the verse-by-verse . 1. How long before the feast, our passage does not state; but it is clear from John 13:29; John 18:28; John 19:14; John 19:31, that it was not first on the 14th Nisan, as the harmonists have frequently maintained (see, however, on John 18:28), but(123) on the 13th Nisan, Thursday evening, at the Supper. "Commentary on John 13:1". John 13:31-35 He speaketh of his glorification as near at hand. about much that is human we have to say the converse, that because it has been, therefore it will cease to be. The joy which was accordingly associated with the idea of the feast, was based upon the presupposal of an accomplished atonement, obtained in the Passover through the slaying of the lamb. Having loved his own — Not τα ιδια, his own things, as John 1:11; but τους ιδιους, his own persons; that is, as the expression here means, his apostles; which were in the world — Which were to remain for some time in the world, in a state of trial and suffering, after he was taken from them; he loved them unto the end — Of his life; and therefore would omit nothing which might be for their advantage. There is a deliberate antithesis between the terms: the Father, with whom all is rest, and the world, where all is conflict and peril. https: "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". There it was said: "Before the Passover," a word which designates, as ordinarily, the Paschal supper on the evening which ended the 14th of Nisan (Exodus 12; Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 28:16). But the eating of the unleavened bread began, according to Exodus 12:18, not till "the evening," the evening which opened the fifteenth Nisan, Leviticus 23:6. 107 Thus the meal, for John, was not the Passover meal proper. How long, is not said: but probably, a very short time;—not more than one day at the most: see ch. 26 , which refers to this contention: "He that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve." Joseph Benson's Commentary. We must therefore assume that ἀγαπήσας indicates His love in general, while ἠγάπησεν points to the particular act of love which now sprang from that source.— ἀγαπᾷν can of itself signify only the affection of love. & Debarim Rabba, sect. Note on John 1:11-12.) So Greswell and Ellicott, for example; while, among others, Robinson, Wieseler, and Fairbairn defend the opinion which we have expressed. The mother loves her fretful baby because it is her own. The master of the house was always bound to his family at the paschal season. Now before the feast of the passover (προ δε της εορτης του πασχα — pro de tēs heortēs tou pascha). Which were in the world - Who were to continue longer in its troubles and difficulties. John 17:11 : "I am no longer in the world; but these are in the world, and I come to Thee." His own were (are) menaced by hardship, peril, death; hence Christ’s unquenchable and everlasting love. feast. But the latter carries with it an idea of relationship and property, such as we should say of a man's wife or children, yea, his own flesh. IV. We have therefore shewn, by many arguments in our notes upon Matthew 26:2,6, that the John 13:2. Now that phrase is exactly the same as the one used by St. John here, and which is rendered “unto the end.” St. John was a Jew writing in Greek. BibliographyBurkitt, William. John 13:1-16. They rather quickened his friendship; for he indulged the tenderest feelings of love on this occasion, and after the manner of a departing friend, expressed his kindness in the most affectionate manner. In Hebrews 3:6, Hebrews 3:14, μέχρι τὲλους , unto the end. BibliographyHaydock, George Leo. III. These were the men He loved—not helped, befriended, but loved. The preparation day, the 14th day of Nisan, our Tuesday sunset to Wednesday sunset, the day of the Crucifixion. It was the great love of Jesus for his own that motivated his supreme act of giving himself up to die for the remission of sins. The words differ very widely from the same words, his own. Greek. And God will glorify Him in Himself, and will immediately glorify Him’ (John 13:32). 13:1 states, "Now before the festival of the Passover, Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart from this world and to go to the Father." To remove from this world to the Father. 12), or it points to the fact, that the transaction to which this note of time refers, the feet-washing, belongs to the time immediately before the beginning of the paschal feast; that between the feast and the washing nothing else intervened; that, with the completion of the washing, the Passover immediately began for those here concerned. So, ‘knowing that His hour was come, He loved them unto the uttermost.’, But there is not only in this a wonderful expression of the true humanity of the Christ, but along with that a suggestion of something more sacred and deeper still. Hence I prefer the rendering at last, or finally He loved them, taking ἠγάπησεν , loved, in the sense of the manifestation of His love. Exodus 12:42), a night-feast, and did not begin until darkness had set in; but the slaying of the lamb took place while it was yet day. "Commentary on John 13:1". To the Greeks ‘all things’ indicated the universe. The objects of his love are described by his property in them, "his own"; by whom are meant, not all mankind, who are his by creation; nor the Jews, who were his nation and countrymen according to the flesh; nor the twelve apostles only, whom he had chosen; but all the elect of God, who are his own, by his choice of them, by the Father's gift of them to him, by the purchase he made of them with his blood, and by his effectual call of them by his grace: these are also described by their condition and situation, "which were in the world"; which is not said to distinguish them from the saints that were in heaven, or to express their former state of unregeneracy, but their present situation in this vain and evil world, which is no objection to Christ's love to them; for though whilst in this world they carry about with them a body of sin and death, are liable to many snares and temptations, and are involved in the troubles, and exposed to the hatred of the world, yet are, and always will be, the objects of the love and care of Christ. "Commentary on John 13:1". The father loves his wayward son because he is his own. Peter is admonished of his Denial. The long night will not end until the cock crows and Jesus is handed over to Pilate at daybreak in 18:27-28. give the completion. “At last He loved them;” that is, showed them the last proof of His love. Having loved his own - Having given to them decisive and constant proofs of his love. We have, running through these precious discourses which follow my text, many allusions to the separation which was to ensue, and to His leaving His followers in circumstances of peculiar peril, defenceless and solitary. https: Is there any reason why we should be afraid of saying that the universal love of Jesus Christ, which gathers into His bosom all mankind, does fall with special tenderness and sweetness upon those who have made Him theirs and have surrendered themselves to be His? BibliographyScofield, C. I. This will appear evident from the exhortation of ver. having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them to the end. In this Gospel, the supper that Jesus shares with his disciples is not the Passover as in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 26:17-25; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-13). "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". Compare John 17:6sqq. 14-16 , and in the prayer of chap. Knowing all that was lying before Him, He was neither absorbed nor confounded, but carried a heart at leisure to love even then ‘unto the uttermost.’. Great crises, whether of joy or sorrow, reveal character and disposition, Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament, The devil put it into the heart of Judas to betray him, Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary, Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament, Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible, Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture, Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament, Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges, "As the first Passover had been the turning point in the redemption of the people of God, so the Cross would be the opening of a new era for believers. 84. John 13:1-17 Jesus washes his disciples feet; and exhorteth. The phrase may mean at last, and so is rendered by many here, as Meyer, Lange, Thayer (Lex.). "Commentary on John 13:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. εἰς τέλος. Having loved them in their sins at first, He loved them unto the end. Commentary on John 13:1-17 (Read John 13:1-17) Our Lord Jesus has a people in the world that are his own; he has purchased them, and paid dear for them, and he has set them apart for himself; they devote themselves to him as a peculiar people. His washing their feet would have had, viewed apart from some specific occasion for it, a far-fetched and romantic character; and the objection which Weisse, for instance, urges against it as a "tasteless humiliation" (he remarks that he could find no edification in it, as it would have to every unbiassed feeling a touch of theatrical design in it), would, on such a supposition, be not altogether unfounded. Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that "To the end" seems to show that the Evangelist so regarded them. The Sorrow of the Eleven at the Account. He so realised Himself the associate and substitute of His criminal friends as to be one with them through love. That which gave its name to the whole feast must necessarily have been included within its limits. Thus a situation of deep embarrassment was the result: murmuring and contest. The further question arises. See on John 12:23, and compare John 2:4. II. after the beginning of the feast on the evening of the 14th Nisan, but just before the feast (i.e. John Trapp Complete Commentary. John 12:1), we cannot doubt that his words here refer to the event which he was about to record, primarily to ἠγάπησεν, or to the "riseth" in the nanrative; or that the feet-washing occurred in the time before the paschal feast. See ch. 1974. John 13:1. πρό, before) immediately before, the day before [on the fourth day of the week, Wednesday.—V. BibliographyNicoll, William R. "Commentary on John 13:1". We cannot but see the confusion of all these observations; and that, by renouncing any specific reason for the Lord's act, they lose the only key to its interpretation. Polyb. .—He knew during the course of His earthly work that His hour was not yet come, and again and again declared this. Now, as this is the first of the passages in the Fourth Gospel which are thought to intimate that the "supper" which our Lord observed, if a Passover at all, was "before the feast of the Passover," as regularly observed, let us see how that is to be met. (b) Christ loved these men because they were His own. "Commentary on John 13:1". The world represents the mass of lost humanity out of which Jesus has called His disciples and from which He would depart shortly when He returned to heaven. before. According to verses 3-4 (printed below), what knowledge did Jesus possess? https: This, “after He should have loved,” etc., is a testimony which His conscience yielded Him with that εἰδὼς, κ. τ. λ. τυὸς ἰδίους] This relationship—the N. T. fulfilment of the old theocratic, John 1:11—had its fullest representation in the circle of apostles, so that the apostles were pre-eminently the ἴδιοι of Jesus. And what deep thoughts on the subject were passing in the mind of our Lord Himself in connection with these arrangements, we are here very sublimely told by our Evangelist (John 12:1-2). Shakespeare’s Sonnets, cxvi., “Love … bears it out even to the edge of doom”.] And does it not help us to realise how truly ‘bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh,’ and bearing a heart thrilling with all innocent human emotions that divine Saviour was? Whilst on the one hand there was the shrinking of which we have such pathetic testimony in the broken prayer that He Himself amended-’Father! Nothing can separate a true believer from the love of Christ. A time or hour was fixed for this; for as there was a set time, called "the fulness of time", agreed upon for his coming into the world, so there was for his going out of it: and now this "his hour was come"; the time was now up, or at least very near at hand; and he "knew" it, being God omniscient, which gave him no uneasiness: nor did it in the least alienate his affections from his people: for. If we understand, "because He knew," there arise two motives for this action, placed unconnectedly together, which is scarcely tolerable. The fact that ‘all things had been given into His hands’ may refer to the whole of time, or it may signify that it was what He received in His divine manhood in consequene of His obedience. Ephesians 1:4. Remembering John's manner in giving marks of time (comp. Reader! See the marginal reading. Now before the feast of the passover This feast was instituted as a memorial of the deliverance of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and was an eminent type of Christ; and this passover was what Christ had greatly desired, it being his last, and when he was to express his great love to his people, mentioned here, by dying for them. Observe, 2. According to Psalms 81:2-4, the feast pertained to the domain of the moon, and was begun with shouting and song: comp. International Bible Study Commentary . And so have all His scattered sheep been loved. The other tokens of love which are recorded in this section are part of the feast itself. We have already said that with this view the word ‘before’ in this verse is perfectly consistent. This was done by his calling them to follow him; by patiently teaching them; by bearing with their errors and weaknesses; and by making them the heralds of his truth and the heirs of eternal life. https: He loved them unto the end—To the end of his sojourn with them. So Robinson. (3) τοῦ διαβόλου … παραδῷ [or παραδοῖ], “the devil having now put into the heart,” etc. They had seen Him as their Teacher. J. Gerhard: "Because they still remained in the world, in the valley of tribulation, where they must expect nothing but trouble"),—leads expressly to the love which manifested itself in this last proof, and by which Jesus strengthened their hearts beforehand to meet the coming sorrow. 489. "Commentary on John 13:1". (2) The circumstances of one side of the scene, three in number. And if, while he was hastening thither, he did not cease to regard his own with his wonted love, there is no reason why we should now think that his affection is changed. The feet, either bare, or sandalled, or with shoes, were liable to be heated by the fine dust of the roads, and it was expected that the host would furnish means of washing them, see Luke 7:44. Cancel. The words of Jesus, ver. p. 616; Grimm on 2 Maccabees 8:29); but this yields here an inappropriate gradation, as though Jesus had now exercised His love to the utmost (in answer to Godet). After this was done, he, with the other disciples interioris admissionis, also sate at the table, expecting that the "younger" would spontaneously assume the function of feet-washers for all the rest. The expression: His hour was come, forms a contrast with that which we have so often met: "His hour was not yet come. John chapter 13 Bible study & commentary. is regarded by interpreters as co-ordinated with εἰδὼς, κ. τ. λ., according to the well-known usage, which rests on a logical basis, of the asyndetic connection of several participles (Voigtler, ad Luc. Now before the feast of the passover, Jesus, knowing that his hour was come that he should pass out of this world unto the Father, haying loved his own which were in the world, loved them to the full. The Agony and Bloody Sweat of Gethsemane, the red drops that fell on the dust of Calvary, those Seven dying Words, all tell that His love was love ‘to the uttermost.’ And we know ‘His own’ include all who shall believe on Him through their word (John 17:20). . To prove that the 14th could not be included in the feast, Keil cites Leviticus 23:6; Numbers 28:17; but it must not be forgotten that in these last passages the complement of the word the feast is not of the Passover, but of unleavened bread ( τῶν ἀζύμων); the eating of the unleavened bread began indeed only with the Paschal supper, on the evening of the 14th-15th, to continue seven days until the 21st. But considering the high importance which the Evangelist himself attaches to the events here recorded, the feet-washing and what was connected with it down to ch. In these passages the English exactly follows the Greek—i.e., the Greek in the passage of Genesis repeats the words as the Hebrew does, and in that of Amos, expresses the intensity by an adverbial phrase ( ε ìs τέλος). 1 Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. John 12:1; John 12:12; John 12:36, and Excursus F: The Day of the Crucifixion of our Lord. "Commentary on John 13:1". (124) How, the καὶ δείπνου, κ. τ. λ., which immediately follows, expresses, namely, by means of the washing of the feet, hence it cannot be understood of the whole work of love in suffering (Graf). (Wichelhaus has thoroughly settled this point in his Leidensgesch.) And the like triumphant words were uttered to me by my late reverend good friend and father, Mr John Jackson, pastor of Binton, in Warwickshire, when he lay dying, and laid his last charge upon me, to preach Christ, who had swallowed up death in victory. and Rev. That, notwithstanding this knowledge, He so profoundly abased Himself towards His disciples, and washed their feet, must fill us: with thankful and adoring love. "Family Bible New Testament". Now, since he is the first-born from the dead, this definition of death applies to the whole body of the Church, that it is an opening or passage to go to God, from whom believers are now absent. This thought presided over these last manifestations of His love.Hengstenberg and others connect this participle with the principal verb through the idea of a contrast: "Although He knew indeed..., nevertheless He loved and humbled Himself thus," as if the prospect of His future exaltation could have been for Jesus a hindrance in the way of acting as He does! Now before the feast of the passover,— The observation with which John ushers in this part of his history, may be considered as a kind of preface to the five subsequent chapters of his gospel. BibliographyPett, Peter. Now before the feast of the Passover. save Me from this hour . 1917. I beg the Reader to remark with me, what is here said of the unalterable love of Jesus to his own. Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. 17. See on Matthew 26:17 and Numbers 28:17. when Jesus knew = Jesus (App-98. BibliographyJohnson, Barton W. "Commentary on John 13:1". But if, on the contrary, we identify, as some interpreters do (Hengstenberg, Lange, Hofmann, Luthardt, Keil, etc. The master of the house had only yielded his chamber to the Lord. BibliographyCoffman, James Burton. BibliographyWesley, John. The sense is, that although he knew his own sufferings were at hand, the prospect of them did not make him forget his disciples.